СОКРАЩЕННЫЕ ФОРМЫ ГЛАГОЛОВ

1. В разговорном английском языке обычно используются сокращенные формы вспомогательных глаголов. Их также часто используют и в неформальной письменной речи. При использовании сокращенной формы вместо пропущенных букв ставится апостроф ('):

'm = am I'm your boss.
's = is She's my girlfriend.
's = has He's just a freak.
're =are You're all right.
've = have We've lost it!
'll = will или shall I'll be back.
'd = would или had They'd like to meet you.

2. Сокращенные формы глаголов с частицей not:

do not = don't;
does not = doesn’t;
did not = didn't;
have not = haven't;
has not = hasn't;
had not = hadn't;
cannot = can’t;
could not = couldn't;
will not = won’t;
shall not = shan’t;
would not = wouldn't;
should not = shouldn't;
must not = mustn't;
need not = needn't;
might not = mightn't (редко);
dare not = daren't (редко);
is not = isn't;
are not = aren’t [a:nt];
was not = wasn't;
were not = weren't;
ain't = is not, are not (просторечие);

3. Некоторые из этих сокращенных форм используются после вопросительных слов:

who's = who is;
who'll = who will (или who shall);
who'd = who would, who had;
what's = what is, what has;
what'll = what will;
how's = how is, how has;
where's = where is, where has;
when's = when is;
here's = here is;
that's = that is;
that'll = that will;
there's = there is, there has;
there'll = there will.

Иногда краткие формы (особенно 's) используются после существительного:

John's coming. = John is coming.
Her sister's just left. = Her sister has just left.

Сокращенные формы не используются, если соответствующий глагол стоит в конце предложения:

Yes, you are. (Нельзя сказать Yes, you're.)
Do you remember how old he is? (Нельзя сказать Do you remember how old he's.)
ЗАДАНИЕ:
1) Прослушайте текст и впечатайте пропущенные сокращенные формы;
2) Прочитайте текст вслух синхронно с записью;
3) Напишите финальную реплику.


1.
Mr Harris used to work in Dover, but then he changed his job, and he and his wife moved to another town. They did not have many friends there, but they soon met a lot of interesting people, and after a few weeks they often went to dinner or to parties at other people's houses.
2.
Then Mrs Harris said to her husband, " been to a lot of other people's houses, and now we must invite them to our house, we?"
3.
"Yes, certainly,' answered her husband. "A big party will be the easiest, it? Then we can start to invite people to dinner in small numbers next month." So Mrs Harris said, "Yes, invite all our friends here to a big party on 5th December."
"How many will that be?" Mr Harris asked. " invite too many."
4.
Mrs Harris was beginning to write the invitations when her husband saw that she was writing, "Party: 6.30 to 8.30 p.m."
"That isn't very nice, is it?" he said. " telling our guests that they must go at 8.30." So Mrs Harris just wrote, "Party : 6.30 p.m."
5.
A lot of guests came, and they all had a good time, so they did not go home at 8.30. In fact, they were still there at midnight when the door bell rang and a policeman arrived. He said, "You must stop making a noise, because someone has complained."
6.
Mr Harris said he did not want to quarrel with the policeman, so everyone went home. They were sorry to have to go.
7.
When Mr and Mrs Harris were alone again, she said to him, "That was a surprise, it? Who complained about the noise?"
"," Mr Harris answered in a tired voice.

Exercise 1

Finish the questions and the answers:

1. Mr and Mrs Harris not have many friends?
Just after they moved a new town.

2. people invite them their homes after that?
, they .

3. Mrs Harris want to invite people to her house?
Because they had invited her and her husband to theirs.

4. Mr Harris want give a big party?
Because it was easier than a lot small dinner parties.

5. Mr Harris not want his wife do?
write "to 8.30" on the invitations.

6. Mrs Harris change the invitations then?
, she .

7. Mr and Mrs Harris's guests have a good time?
, they .

8. they go home 8.30?
, none .

9. they go home?
Because a policeman came stop them.

10 complained to the police?
had.

Exercise 2

Write this story. Choose the right words each time:

Mr Harris worked in first, but then he worked in an town. First they did not know people, but then a lot of invited them to meals and parties, so Mrs Harris wanted to them to her house, and her husband wanted to invite them, . Mr Harris wanted to have big party first, and his wife accepted this. She began to write the invitations, but then her husband stopped her and asked her to change , because he did not want to tell the guests to home at 8.30. The guests were very at the party, but a came and sent them home.

ГРАММАТИЧЕСКИЙ СПРАВОЧНИК
РАЗДЕЛИТЕЛЬНЫЕ ВОПРОСЫ (DISJUNCTIVE/TAG QUESTIONS)

Расчлененный/разделительный вопрос состоит из двух частей: первая часть представляет собой утвердительное или отрицательное предложение с прямым порядком слов; вторая часть - краткий общий вопрос, состоящий из соответствующего вспомогательного или модального глагола и местоимения. Во второй части употребляется обратный порядок слов. Эта часть расчлененного вопроса соответствует русскому обороту не правда ли? не так ли? да? верно? и т.п.?

Первая часть расчлененного вопроса произносится с понижающейся интонацией, вторая часть с повышающейся интонацией.

Если первая часть вопроса представляет собой утвердительное предложение, то глагол во второй части употребляется в отрицательной форме. При этом во второй части повторяется тот вспомогательный или модальный глагол, который входит в состав сказуемого первой части. Если сказуемое первой части выражено глаголом в Present Indefinite или Past Indefinite, то во второй части употребляется глагол do (does) или did:
You like to skate, don't you? - Вы любите кататься на коньках, не правда ли?
You can do it, can't you? - Вы можете это сделать, не правда ли?
You have worked here a long time, haven't you? - Вы здесь давно работаете, не правда ли?

Если первая часть вопроса представляет собой отрицательное предложение, то вспомогательный или модальный глагол во второй части употребляется в утвердительной форме:
You could not do it, could you? - Вы не могли этого сделать, не правда ли?
I didn't say that, did I? - Я не говорил этого, не правда ли?
Alan, you haven't left the plant, have you? - Алан, вы не ушли с завода, не правда ли?

Если сказуемое первой части выражено глаголом to be и to have (BrE), то во второй части повторяется этот же глагол:
You are tired, aren't you? - Вы устали, не правда ли?
You have a dictionary, haven't you? (BrE) / You have a dictionary, don't you? (AmE) -У вас есть словарь, не правда ли?

Ответы на расчлененные вопросы обычно бывают краткими, отрицательными или утвердительными в зависимости от смысла:
You are tired, aren't you? -Yes, I am. No, I am not. - Вы устали, не правда ли? - Да. Нет.
You haven't read the book, have you? Yes, I have. No, I haven't. - Вы не читали этой книги, неправда ли? Нет, читал. Да, не читал.


Дополнительный материал по разделительным вопросам здесь

Exercise 3


Put the right tag questions in the correct places below:


1. Mr and Mrs Harris moved to another town, ?
2. They did not have many friends, ?
3. Then they were often invited to dinner, ?
4. Mrs Harris said, "We know a lot of people now, ?"
5. She said, "And we've been to a lot of other people's houses, ?"
6. Mr Harris said, "We can't have a lot of people, ?"
7. The guests all said, "Your house looks very nice, ?"