In this section you will read a passage which is followed by several questions
For the questions you are to choose the one best answer, (А), (В), (C), or (D),
to each question.
It was once believed that being overweight was healthy, but nowadays few people
subscribe to this viewpoint. While many people are fighting the battle to reduce weight.
studies are being conducted concerning the appetite and how it is controlled by both
emotional and biochemical factors. Some of the conclusions of these studies may give
insights into how to deal with weight problems. For example, when several hundred
people were asked about their eating habits in times of stress, 44 percent said they
reacted to stressful situations by eating. Further investigations with both humans and
animals indicated that it is not food which relieves tension but rather the act of chewing.
A test in which subjects were blindfolded showed that obese people have a keener
sense of taste and crave more flavorful food than nonobese people. When deprived of the
variety and intensity of tastes, obese people are not satisfied and consequently eat more
to fulfill this need. Blood samples taken from people after they were shown a picture of
food revealed that overweight people reacted with an increase in blood insulin, a
chemical associated with appetite. This did not happen with average-weight people.
In another experiment, results showed that certain people have a specific, biologically
induced hunger for carbohydrates. Eating carbohydrates raises the level of serotonin, a
neurotransmitter in the brain. Enough serotonin produces a sense of satiation, and hunger
for carbohydrates subsides.
Exercise has been recommended as an important part of a weight-loss program.
However, it has been found that mild exercise, such as using stairs instead of the
elevator, is better in the long run than taking on a strenuous program, such as jogging,
which many people find difficult to continue over periods of time and which also