In this section you will read a passage which is followed by several questions
For the questions you are to choose the one best answer, (Рђ), (Р’), (C), or (D),
to each question.
Experiments have shown that in selecting personnel for a job, interviewing is at best a
hindrance, and may even cause harm. These studies have disclosed that the judgments of
interviewers differ markedly and bear little or no relationship to the adequacy of job
applicants. Of the many reasons why this should be the case, three in particular stand out.
The first reason is related to an error of judgment known as the halo effect. If a person
has one noticeable good trait, their other characteristics will be judged as better than they
really are. Thus, an individual who dresses smartly and shows self-confidence is likely to
be judged capable of doing a job well regardless of his or her real ability.
Interviewers are also prejudiced by an effect called the primacy effect. This error
occurs when interpretation of later information is distorted by earlier connected
information. Hence, in an interview situation, the interviewer spends most of the
interview trying to confirm the impression given by the candidate in the first few
moments. Studies have repeatedly demonstrated that such an impression is unrelated
to the aptitude of the applicant.
The phenomenon known as the contrast effect also skews the judgment of
interviewers. A suitable candidate may be underestimated because he or she contrasts
with a previous one who appears exceptionally intelligent. Likewise, an average
candidate who is preceded by one who gives a weak showing may be judged as more
suitable than he or she really is.
Since interviews as a form of personnel selection have been shown to be inadequate,
other selection procedures have been devised which more accurately predict candidate
suitability. Of the various tests devised, the predictor which appears to do this most
successfully is cognitive ability as measured by a variety of verbal and spatial tests.