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translating:blog:2014-10-01-120336 [2014/10/01 12:13]
schyuri
translating:blog:2014-10-01-120336 [2018/04/22 23:27] (current)
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 The parasympathetic nervous system has sometimes been called the "rest and digest"​ response. The PNS slows and relaxes many functions of organs and body systems. For example, the PNS can cause blood vessels to widen, while slowing the heart beat and decreasing the force of the heart'​s contractions. These effects help to lower blood pressure by creating more space in the vessels, and slowing the force and rate of the pump (the heart). The PNS can divert blood back to the skin and the gastrointestinal tract when an urgent need for blood has passed. The PNS can narrow the bronchioles in the lungs when the need for oxygen has diminished. Similarly, it is the PNS that can contract the pupils. However, the PNS actually stimulates digestion, especially after such functions have been down-regulated by the SNS. (The PNS stimulates salivary gland secretion, and accelerates peristalsis). So, while in general the PNS has a calming effect on the body, it can stimulate activity as well.  The parasympathetic nervous system has sometimes been called the "rest and digest"​ response. The PNS slows and relaxes many functions of organs and body systems. For example, the PNS can cause blood vessels to widen, while slowing the heart beat and decreasing the force of the heart'​s contractions. These effects help to lower blood pressure by creating more space in the vessels, and slowing the force and rate of the pump (the heart). The PNS can divert blood back to the skin and the gastrointestinal tract when an urgent need for blood has passed. The PNS can narrow the bronchioles in the lungs when the need for oxygen has diminished. Similarly, it is the PNS that can contract the pupils. However, the PNS actually stimulates digestion, especially after such functions have been down-regulated by the SNS. (The PNS stimulates salivary gland secretion, and accelerates peristalsis). So, while in general the PNS has a calming effect on the body, it can stimulate activity as well. 
  
-Some anatomists refer to a third, or enteric, nervous system. The ENS regulates itself but can be impacted upon by both sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve fibers which are connected to ENS plexuses. The enteric nervous system is capable of operating on its own, even after having been severed from input from the SNS and PNS. This is why the enteric nervous system is sometimes referred to as a "​second brain."​ (Hospital Practice, The Enteric Nervous System: A Second Brain, Michael D. Gershon, MD, Columbia University) ([1]+Some anatomists refer to a third, or enteric, nervous system. The ENS regulates itself but can be impacted upon by both sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve fibers which are connected to ENS plexuses. The enteric nervous system is capable of operating on its own, even after having been severed from input from the SNS and PNS. This is why the enteric nervous system is sometimes referred to as a "​second brain."​ (Hospital Practice, The Enteric Nervous System: A Second Brain, Michael D. Gershon, MD, Columbia University)
  
 The enteric nervous system regulates secretions of the intestinal glands, regeneration of the intestinal epithelium, and intestinal motility (movement of the gut). The ENS is sometimes considered the third part of the autonomic nervous system. ​ The enteric nervous system regulates secretions of the intestinal glands, regeneration of the intestinal epithelium, and intestinal motility (movement of the gut). The ENS is sometimes considered the third part of the autonomic nervous system. ​
translating/blog/2014-10-01-120336.txt · Last modified: 2018/04/22 23:27 (external edit)