User Tools

Site Tools


grammar:blog:2013-06-16-223611

Про-формы

Joe was the son of a farmer. His father's farm was poor, and Joe worked on it for a long time, but then his father died, and Joe said, “I needn't stay here now. I'll sell this farm and buy one in a better place. Then I'll soon be rich.”
He bought a farm in the east of the country, but then his new neighbours said to him, “The weather's often very bad here. The wind's very strong, and it breaks windows and doors. You must build a room under the ground, and then you and your family can go down there, and you'll be safe from the wind.”
So Joe built a room under the ground. It was a lot of work, because the ground was hard. But after that, the weather was good for a very long time. There was no wind, and Joe spoke angrily. He said, “Why did I listen to my neighbours? I didn't have to make that room under the ground. The wind never blows strongly here.”
But then one day there was a very strong wind, and Joe and his family had to go down into their room under the ground. They were there for a long time. Then the wind stopped, and they came up. All the windows and doors in their house were broken. Joe was not angry about his work now. He smiled happily and said, “Ah! I'm glad I built that room!”

Задание:

1. Скопируйте текст и выделите жирным шрифтом все про-формы.
2. Сформулируйте свое определение про-формы, как вы ее понимаете.
3. Приведите пример небольшого русского текста с про-формами.

~~LINKBACK~~

Discussion

onemateonemate, 2013/06/22 21:48

1.
Joe was the son of a farmer. His father's farm was poor, and Joe worked on it for a long time, but then his father died, and Joe said, “I needn't stay here now. I'll sell this farm and buy one in a better place. Then I'll soon be rich.”
He bought a farm in the east of the country, but then his new neighbours said to him, “The weather's often very bad here. The wind's very strong, and it breaks windows and doors. You must build a room under the ground, and then you and your family can go down there, and you'll be safe from the wind.”
So Joe built a room under the ground. It was a lot of work, because the ground was hard. But after that, the weather was good for a very long time. There was no wind, and Joe spoke angrily. He said, “Why did I listen to my neighbours? I didn't have to make that room under the ground. The wind never blows strongly here.”
But then one day there was a very strong wind, and Joe and his family had to go down into their room under the ground. They were there for a long time. Then the wind stopped, and they came up. All the windows and doors in their house were broken. Joe was not angry about his work now. He smiled happily and said, “Ah! I'm glad I built that room!”

2. Слово, необходимое для удаления избыточности/повторяемости → экономии в языке, значение которого извлекается из контекста.

3. Зигмунд с Виолеттой вошли в сарай. Там он её и поцеловал.

Yuri ScherbakovYuri Scherbakov, 2013/06/22 22:49, 2013/06/22 22:50

Вот здесь еще есть проформы:

and Joe worked on it for a long time
He bought a farm in the east of the country,
and it breaks windows and doors.
But after that, the weather was good for a very long time.

Здесь нет проформ:

There was no wind, and Joe spoke angrily.
I didn't have to make that room under the ground.
one day there was a very strong wind,
and Joe and his family had to go down into their room under the ground.
All the windows and doors in their house were broken.
Joe was not angry about his work now.
“Ah! I'm glad I built that room!”

Доп. вопрос:

В какой фразе it - проформа, а в какой - нет?

1. It was a lot of work, because the ground was hard.
2. The wind's very strong, and it breaks windows and doors.

onemateonemate, 2013/06/23 08:25

На мой взгляд - в первой фразе нет, а во второй всё же есть.

Yuri ScherbakovYuri Scherbakov, 2013/06/23 10:37

верно, и в какой что?

И здесь еще проформы выдели, пожалуйста:

and Joe worked on it for a long time
He bought a farm in the east of the country,
and it breaks windows and doors.
But after that, the weather was good for a very long time.

onemateonemate, 2013/07/01 17:34, 2013/07/01 17:34
верно, и в какой что?

не понял вопроса. в первой фразе it это не проформа (я не знаю как это навзвать), а во второй it это wind.

and Joe worked on it for a long time - над чем-то там работал.
He bought a farm in the east of the country - неужели east ? почему ?
and it breaks windows and doors - ветер опять.
But after that, the weather was good for a very long time. - предыдущие события

Там, где я неверно указал проформы я понял почему неверно.

Yuri ScherbakovYuri Scherbakov, 2013/07/01 21:29
He bought a farm in the east of the country - неужели east ? почему ?

здесь про-форма - he = Joe

. в первой фразе it это не проформа (я не знаю как это навзвать) = 1. It was a lot of work, because the ground was hard.

В данном случае it - это безличное подлежащее = Id

onemateonemate, 2013/07/02 22:15
здесь про-форма - he = Joe

надо было умудриться не заметить.

всё понятно. спасибо.

Yuri ScherbakovYuri Scherbakov, 2013/07/02 22:42
надо было умудриться не заметить.

см. содержание поста: uniformity (монотонность)

You could leave a comment if you were logged in.
grammar/blog/2013-06-16-223611.txt · Last modified: 2013/06/17 01:00 (external edit)